Professor, Doshisha University
China is in disputes with ASEAN countries such as the Philippines and Vietnam over territorial sovereignty regarding the Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands in the South China Sea. Since 2013, China has constructed seven artificial islands in rocky reef and atoll areas. Efforts towards militarization of the artificial islands, such as through the building of runways, have also been seen though this is denied by China. It is against this background that the US Navy began its 'Freedom of Navigation Operation' from October of 2015 in waters around islands and reefs effectively under Chinese control. This article discusses the aims of that operation.
Selected Papers No.21
Assistant Professor, Department of International Studies, College of International Relations, Nihon University
Arctic international politics has enjoyed 25 years of stability since the end of the cold war. However, the Arctic concert system is now being forced to navigate various and difficult challenges that have now arisen, including a new stage in the security environment due to geopolitical shifts resulting from climate change, economic advances by non-Arctic states, and the effects of worsening relations between the West and Russia on global international politics. The deteriorating relations between the West and Russia are especially worrying, casting dark shadows onto the Arctic concert system itself.
Senior Fellow, International Environment and Economy Institute / Member, Future Earth Engagement Committee
This article introduces the main features of Future Earth, whose establishment was announced in 2012, the Core Projects that were moved into Future Earth framework in 2016 and which addresses a variety of ocean issues, and the Knowledge-Action Networks(KAN) that are about to begin operations.