Alexandre K. MAGNAN
Institute for sustainable development and international relations, IDDRI, France
IDDRI/ University Pierre and Marie Curie (UPMC), Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), France
Consequences from changes in the ocean's physics and chemistry, such as ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, have cascading effects, moving to ecosystems and to ecosystem services. Measures concerning the four options of mitigation, protection, adoption and reparation must be implemented at the regional and national government levels, in addition to the promotion of rapid and ambitious CO2 emission reductions at the international level, before global warming and ocean acidification cause irreparable damage to our ecosystems.