Overfishing due to human activities, marine environmental deterioration due to marine debris and eutrophication, and climate change are the main causes of the decline and depletion of fishery resources. According to a report by the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), more than one-third of current fishery resources are overexploited or depleted. Improving this situation will require the scientific and rational use of fishery resources. This makes it necessary to constantly monitor and accurately grasp the actual circumstances of fishery resources. This paper reviews the current status of eight monitoring methods―namely, fishery statistics, sample-based fishery resource surveys, egg and larval surveys, sighting surveys, tag-release surveys, bio-logging, acoustic remote sensing, and environmental DNA analysis―and summarizes the characteristics of each, with the hope of contributing to future improvements in monitoring methods for the sustainable use of fishery resources.